An estimated 68% of the total populations of 73 million in Ethiopia live in malarious areas covering almost 75% of its land. The diverse eco-climatic condition in the country makes the malaria transmission pattern seasonal and unstable usually characterized by frequent focal and cyclic widespread epidemics. The disease has been consistently reported as one of the three top leading causes of morbidity and mortality over the past years. Similarly, in 2004/05 it has been reported as the first cause of morbidity and mortality accounting for 16.6% Out-patient consultations (OPD), 15.0% admissions and 29.0% deaths. Cognizant of the health problems and the need to deliver a comprehensive health care service that will contribute to improvement in the health and socio-economic conditions in the country, the Government of Ethiopia developed and endorsed a twenty-year Health Sector Development Program (HSDP) in1997. The main objective of the HSDP is to provide comprehensive, integrated and cost effective primary health care service, with focus on communicable diseases prevention and control, nutrition, environmental health and hygiene, reproductive health and immunization.
Ministry of Health; 2006
Malaria is highly endemic in most parts of Uganda with 63% of the population of 26.9 million (2005) exposed to high and 25% to moderate malaria transmission levels while 12% live in areas with low or unstable transmission which are epidemic prone. The burden of malaria is still high with estimated 70-100, 000 deaths per year among children under 5 years of age and between 10 and 12 million clinical cases treated in the public health system alone. However, in the last years some progress has been made towards effective malaria control. The knowledge of malaria, its seriousness and the major risk groups has steadily increased in the population and now generally reached levels above 80%. Also, the demand for preventive measures such as insecticide treated nets has rapidly increased along with the establishment of a viable commercial market for these products as well as distribution mechanisms through civil society and the public sector. This has resulted in an increase of the proportion of households with at least one mosquito net from 13.2% to 25.9% in the last 4 years and many of these nets are now ITNs due to two mass net treatment campaigns carried out in 20 districts in 2004 and 2005. The area of case management has seen important developments with the introduction and nation-wide roll-out of a community based malaria treatment programme for children under 5 (HBMF) and the preparations for a shift to a highly effective malaria treatment with Artemisinin-based Combination Therapy (ACT). Malaria Control Programme Ministry of Health ;
The best way to prevent malaria is to avoid being bitten by mosquitoes. There are lots of things you can do to reduce your risk of getting bitten. You should also take drugs to protect you from malaria. But no treatment can protect you completely. If you get a fever and symptoms similar to the flu after visiting Asia, Africa or South America, then you should see a doctor at once. We've looked closely at the research and ranked the treatments into categories, according to whether they work. We have ranked treatments for adults, pregnant women, and children separately because the risks of each treatment are different depending how old you are and if you are pregnant. The types of drugs you need when travelling to a country where malaria is common may change over time. This is because some types of malaria become resistant to some drugs. This means the drug no longer protects you against the disease. Even if you have been to a country before, you need to check which drug to take next time you go.
BMJ; Friday 9 January 2009
drugstore 'serif'; font-size: 12pt">The development of an all-inclusive Global Strategic Plan could not have come at a more auspicious time than now when all is set for the mid-term evaluation of the Abuja targets agreed upon during the African Summit on Roll Back Malaria. The intent of the plan is to put forward a framework that will guide effective and harmonized involvement of the Roll Back Malaria Partnership in implementation as a vital step in covering identi?ed gaps. It is noteworthy that this Global Strategic Plan 2005 – 2015 acknowledges the fact and indeed indicates that if effective malaria control effort is initiated and sustained in all malaria endemic countries, patient this will contribute to the attainment of six out of the eight Millennium Development Goals. In order to generate the desired level of ownership several drafts of this document were shared with all constituencies of the RBM Partnership Board for review before ?nalization. On behalf of the Roll Back Malaria Partnership and its Board, check I am pleased to present the Global Strategic Plan, developed as an invaluable tool for scaling-up and harmonizing implementation of malaria control efforts. The international community is making funds available for malaria control in the most affected countries on a scale never seen before, and politicians in both developing and industrialized countries are converging on the need to act now. This is an opportunity to roll back malaria through a massive concerted scale-up of interventions over the next ?ve years and by consolidating these gains from 2010 onwards. This opportunity must not be missed.
Roll back Malaria Partnership, 2005
cure 'serif'">Malaria is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. An estimated 350 and 500 million clinical episodes of malaria occur each year, rx resulting in over one million deaths. Around 60% of the clinical cases and over 90% of the deaths occur in sub-Saharan Africa (Korenromp 2005). In addition to acute disease and deaths, malaria. Because of the high prevalence of malaria and HIV infection in the region, co-infection and interaction between the two diseases are very common. Evidence shows that HIV increases the risk of malaria infection (French 2001), high-density parasitaemia and clinical malaria (Whitworth 2000), and severe malaria and malaria-related mortality (Grimwade 2003; Khasnis 2003). Reports also suggest that anti malarial treatment failure may be more common in HIV-infected adults with low CD4-cell counts compared to those not infected with HIV (Van Geertruyden 2006). In pregnant women, HIV infection has also been shown to impair the ability of pregnant women to control infection with Plasmodium falciparum. HIV-positive pregnant women are more likely to have detectable parasitaemia, higher malaria parasite densities, and develop clinical or placental malaria and malarial anaemia than HIV-negative pregnant women (Ayisi 2003; ter Kuile 2004).
Mathanga DP, Chinkhumba J; 2007 DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD006689