Key findings

- Providing training for the appropriate use of insecticide- treated bednets (ITNs) may increase the number of adults and children under five sleeping under bednets.

- Providing incentives to encourage use of insecticide-treated bednets would probably lead to little or no difference in ownership or use of bednets.

- Free insecticide-treated bednets would probably increase the number of people who own bednets compared to providing subsidized bednets or bednets offered at full market price.


Insecticide-treated bed nets fit over a bed and act as a barrier between insects and the person sleeping. The bed nets are dipped in insecticide, a chemical that kills or repels mosquitoes and effectively prevent malaria. Insecticide-treated bed nets cost money and it is important to find ways of ensuring that people who need them own them. Even when people own bed nets they may not always use them properly. To be effective, bednets need to be used every night. They must also hang properly and be treated with enough insecticide. It is important to measure whether different strategies not only increase people’s ownership but also people’s use of bednets.