Malaria is highly endemic in most parts of Uganda with 63% of the population of 26.9 million (2005) exposed to high and 25% to moderate malaria transmission levels while 12% live in areas with low or unstable transmission which are epidemic prone. The burden of malaria is still high with estimated 70-100, 000 deaths per year among children under 5 years of age and between 10 and 12 million clinical cases treated in the public health system alone. However, in the last years some progress has been made towards effective malaria control. The knowledge of malaria, its seriousness and the major risk groups has steadily increased in the population and now generally reached levels above 80%. Also, the demand for preventive measures such as insecticide treated nets has rapidly increased along with the establishment of a viable commercial market for these products as well as distribution mechanisms through civil society and the public sector. This has resulted in an increase of the proportion of households with at least one mosquito net from 13.2% to 25.9% in the last 4 years and many of these nets are now ITNs due to two mass net treatment campaigns carried out in 20 districts in 2004 and 2005. The area of case management has seen important developments with the introduction and nation-wide roll-out of a community based malaria treatment programme for children under 5 (HBMF) and the preparations for a shift to a highly effective malaria treatment with Artemisinin-based Combination Therapy (ACT). Malaria Control Programme Ministry of Health ;