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Tuberculosis (TB) is a common cause of severe lung disease and death in HIV-positive children. Childhood TB is common in poor countries, especially those with a coexisting burden of HIV/ AIDS disease. HIV-positive children have a higher risk of developing TB than HIV-negative children. Isoniazid prevents TB in HIV-positive adults and is currently used in children who are at high risk of developing TB disease after exposure to someone with TB. However, there is limited information on the effect of isoniazid medication in reducing active TB or death if given to HIVpositive children without known TB contact.

Key findings

- In HIV-positive children not taking ART, isoniazid medication reduces the number of children developing active TB by 69%, and death by 54% ;

- The number of children with adverse effects were similar in children receiving isoniazid medication as the control group in both children on ART and not on ART;

- No benefit or harm has been identified with the use of isoniazid in HIV-positive children taking ART.