diagnosis 'serif'">Despite investments in providing free government health services in Uganda, and many caretakers still seek treatment from the drug shops/private clinics. The study aimed to assess determinants for use of government facilities or drug shops/private clinics for febrile illnesses in children under five. Infant and child mortality rates due to febrile illnesses are high in resource poor countries, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. With the millennium development goal number four, many countries have targeted to reduce under-five mortality of the 1990 level by two thirds by 2015. In Uganda, there is a high disease burden from febrile illnesses with malaria contributing 30 – 50% of outpatient burden and 35% of hospital admissions. Those affected by malaria are mostly women and children under five years. Much of the effort at health facility level has been to improve quality and reduce costs of care in government facilities. In 2001, the government removed user fees from all the government health facilities except for the private wing in the district hospitals and there was a rapid increase in utilization of care. Studies have demonstrated that even after removal of user fees quality of care was maintained.

 Elizeus Rutebemberwa, George Pariyo et al; 2009, 8:45 doi: 10.1186/1475-2875-8-45